Skeletal and structural organizations of Human Body
Editor(s)/Author: Dr. D.R. Singh
Editor(s)/Author: Dr. D.R. Singh
In the past fifty years or so there have been many changes that have shaped how students learn human anatomy with curriculum becoming either more integrated or more system based. An explosion of information in acquisition of knowledge in every discipline has been a force in driving curriculum change as it increases the amount to be learnt without necessarily increasing the time available. With these changes it was realized that a new text to be written that would allow students to learn anatomy. I eventually decided upon a simple approach with each chapter having four consecutive sections: Chapter Outlines, Gross Features, Microscopic Structure, and Applied Anatomy.
The Chapter Outline provides the basis on which the contents of the chapter will be built. This portion of the chapter can be utilized by the students who only require a basic level of understanding and can also be read a summary of the important required for mastering the chapter. The Gross Features provide more detailed anatomy along with a substantial amount of relevant clinical correlation. It is not an exhaustive description but instead provides information to a level that is necessary for understanding the structural and/or functional plan of any particular organ. Microscopic Structure of any organ has been described with the text dealing with salient features and is supported by photomicrographs and line drawings for more clarity. An attempt to correlate the gross and histological has been done. Applied Anatomy in the final section of every chapter represents the third level of clinical aspect regarding any organ.
Illustrations are an integral part of any text. They must depict the reader with a conceptual image of the region that brings text to life and presents views that will assist in the understanding of the regional anatomy. The illustrations are drawn by the author himself designed to integrate the text in new ways, and to provide a conceptual framework for building further understanding the description. Standard conventional colors have been used throughout the book except when indicated specifically.
I felt that there are many outstanding textbooks covering the section areas described in this book, hence trying to cover ridiculously simple presentation would produce a text of greater usefulness, in the limited size of the book. I repeat that the text contents in this book are not exhaustive in coverage, but provide enough anatomical facts to provide majority of students a comprehensive structural and clinical material for their use in traditional /systemic, and problem-based curricula, and, therefore, will be particularly beneficial to students who want to revise anatomy in minimal time especially during the examination period.
SECTION 1: SKELETAL ORGANIZATION OF BODY
Human Body Regions and Skeleton: Terminology and Surface Features 2
Skeletal Components of Back: The Vertebral Column 19
Exterior and Interior of Skull 48
Tiny Bones Inside Cranium: Ear Ossicles and Their Articulations 65
Cartilages of Larynx and Their Articulations 71
Skeletal Elements and Joints in Anterior Midline of Body 80
Overview of Skeleton of Girdles and Free Limbs 91
Long Bones and Major Joints of the Free Upper Limb 114
Hand: Short and Small Long Bones Articulations and Arches 130
Main Bones and Major Joints of Lower Limb 141
Skeleton, Articulations, and Arches of Foot 158
Gender Differences in Bones 169
SECTION 2: STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF BODY
History and Terminology of Histology and Methods for Its Study 176
Cell Organelles and Inclusions with Conceptual View of Tissues 189
General and Special Connective Tissues 208
Epithelial Tissue (Epithelium) 231
Muscular Tissue and Muscles 253
Neural Tissue and Nervous System 262
Tissues, Organs, and Systems 277
Tubular (or Hollow) Organs 293
Non-Tubular (Solid or Compact) or Parenchymatous Organs 323
Routine Staining in Histology and A Few Special Stains 349
Intercellular Junctions between Epithelial Cells (Light and Ultrastructural Aspects) 357