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RFP Journal of Dermatology

Volume  1, Issue 2, July - December 2016, Pages 49-59


Original Article

An Observational Study of the Spectrum of Mucocutaneous Manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus in Mumbai, India
Shah Ashok Saurabh*, Sonthalia Sidharth**, Nagpur G. Niranjan***, Poojary Amin Shital****
*Consultant Dermatologist, Cosmetologist & Dermatosurgeon, Bhatia Hospital, Mumbai, India. **Consultant Dermatologist, Cosmetologist & Dermatosurgeon and Medical Director, Skinnocence: The Skin Clinic & Research Centre, Gurugram, India. ***Honorary Consultant Dermatologist **** Professor & Head, Dept of Dermatology & Venereology, K J Somaiya Hospital & Research Centre, Mumbai, India.
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 Introduction: The skin manifestations of diabetes mellitus (DM) are important, to prevent cutaneous complications, and to detect diabetes based upon the suspicion raised from certain dermatoses. Methods: In this hospital-based, non-interventional, observational study, 250 diabetic patients of either gender were evaluated for cutaneous manifestations of diabetes. Patients were categorized into obese and non-obese, and the percentages of various dermatoses in the study population was calculated and compared with similar Indian published studies. Results: The proportion of men was higher, and the peak incidence of DM with cutaneous manifestation was in 40-70 years of age (72.8%). Of the total cases, 66 (26.4%) were obese. Majority of cutaneous manifestations associated with DM were infections, seen in 110 patients (44%), with fungal infections being most common (65 cases, 26%), followed by bacterial infections (36 cases, 14.4%). Cutaneous markers of metabolic syndrome including acanthosis nigricans, and xanthelasma palebrarum were also seen. Disorders of immune dysregulation such as psoriasis lichen planus alopecia areata, and vitiligo were seen in a substantial number of cases. However, specific diabetesassociated skin disorders were sparingly encountered; necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, and sclerederma diabeticorum were not seen. Diabetic foot ulcers were seen in 13 cases (5.2%). Conclusion: In view of the high incidence of cutaneous infections in diabetics, they must be closely monitored for the same for early treatment. The association of psoriasis, lichen planus, vitiligo, alopecia areata etc. can be explained on the common pathogenetic involvement of a dysregulated immunity. Complications like foot ulcers are common and need early intervention.

Keywords: Cutaneous; Skin; Diabetes; Infections; Ulcer. 

Corresponding Author : Shah Ashok Saurabh*